The Colectivo’s new research on people arrested, prosecuted and incarcerated presents statistical information on arrest and incarceration for drug crimes in Latin America. Existing evidence shows that, worldwide, drug policy has involved various costs ranging from social, economic, and institutional costs. The use of prison sentences implies significant costs for the people who are arrested and imprisoned. It means not only the deprivation of liberty but also the violation of other basic rights such as the right to health, the limitation of the right to free development of the personality, the right to freedom of conscience, the right to freedom of expression and a burden on their families. It also implies significant costs for their dependents, families and communities that are impoverished by the incarceration of their relative. Our latest study makes these problems visible with national and regional data and provides information on how certain sectors are affected by these policies: such as women and youth The most recent information from the CEDD shows how incarceration rates for drug crimes have increased in the countries studied, while a regional debate reinforces the need to explore alternative policies and, in particular, alternatives to incarceration. The countries of the region frequently impose excessively high sentences for misdemeanors or precautionary measures on people who participate in the lowest links of drug trafficking networks (such as mules or small traders).